The packaged Smith & Loveless TITAN MBR™ Membrane BioReactor (MBR) provides commercial and private developers the most cost-effective solution for enhanced wastewater treatment and water reuse. Enhanced to make operation even more automated and simpler, and regular maintenance even safer and less frequent than any other membrane system, the new TITAN MBR™ features more compact models with the ability to achieve customized effluent goals and water reuse efficiently.
The macadamia nut is indeed favored by many as a high quality nut, evidenced by its extensive use in desserts or simply as a premium stand-alone snack. One of the world’s leading producers of these delicious nuts produces more than 15 million pounds each year from its Hawaii processing plant.
The Basin Creek Reservoir in Butte, MT served its community with pristine water from both sides of the Continental Divide for nearly 100 years. In 2010, a pine beetle infestation killed most of the trees surrounding the reservoir, many of which fell into the water, increasing the natural organic matter (NOM) level.
Central district heating systems have gained attention in recent years because they can be more efficient than localized boiler units. The efficiency of district heating is usually due to power generation plants being able to produce heat and electricity simultaneously. District heating also helps prevent pollution by using advanced flue gas cleaning techniques.
A major power plant in Thailand is using 3M™ Liqui-Cel™ Membrane Contactors to remove carbon dioxide from a DI water system. The system is an expansion project and will be used to feed a high pressure boiler. Liqui-Cel membrane contactors are being used to lower the CO2 inlet into an Ionpure Electrodeionization (EDI) system. Carbon dioxide adds an ionic load to the EDI system, which can reduce the performance of the system. Manufactures of the EDI equipment suggest lowering the inlet CO2 to reduce the load on the equipment and improve the water quality.
The financial cost to maintain their ozone equipment, and increasing scarcity of replacement parts for their ozone generator, motivated a utility in Springfield, MO, to upgrade their ozone system. Read the full case study to learn how the plant assessed the energy cost of a sidestream ozone injection system compared to that of a turbine mixing design and showed that the Mazzei retrofit design reduced the energy cost of ozone contacting by an average of 69.2% under all plant flow conditions.
The North Texas Metropolitan Water District began working to add ozone to its four interconnected water treatment facilities which operate as the Wylie Water Treatment Plant (WTP).
The Mazzei Sidestream Venturi Injection – Pipeline Flash Reactor System provides a feasible alternative for dissolution of ozone at the Clark County Water Reclamation District (CCWRD) in Las Vegas, because it allowed for flexibility in basin design to meet geographic site constraints.
A water quality audit revealed that two of the largest drinking water plants in the City of Montreal were out of compliance with Quebec’s latest water quality rules. Both drinking water facilities were located in heavily populated areas; consequently, plant modifications had to be accomplished within their existing infrastructure footprints.
A potable water plant in Eastern Angelina County, Texas, serves over 2,000 rural customers.
The design team for the intermediate ozone system at Buckingham Water Treatment Plant, Quebec, had limited space available for ozone contacting for the plant’s 1.3 – 7.4 MGD flow, so a standard fine bubble diffusion basin for ozone disinfection was not an option.
A chemical company which specializes in Clean-In-Place (CIP) systems, contacted Mazzei to discuss the use of ozone as an alternative to peracetic acid sanitation or heat sterilization at their customers’ plants.
The Santa Barbara desalination plant located in the south-eastern part of Curaçao provides drinking water to about half of the population of this Caribbean island. With an average precipitation of approximately 500 mm, rainwater is the only natural source of freshwater in the island. Government efforts to address the water shortage problem date back to the 20s of the last century. Initially based on evaporation, the seawater desalination evolved into the reverse osmosis technology in the 90s. After several years of experimenting with RO, Aqualectra, the municipal supplier of potable water and electricity for Curaçao, took the decision to move forward with this technology and in 2003 started a project to build a SWRO desalination plant.
An MABR is essentially a biological wastewater treatment process that utilizes seemingly passive aeration through oxygen-permeable membranes. Oxygen transfer through the MABR membranes is diffusion based: driven by concentration differences such that oxygen passes from air at atmospheric pressure into water at a higher hydrostatic pressure. This oxygen transfer mechanism, wherein air is supplied to the process at very low pressure, is the reason MABRs have significantly lower energy consumption compared to other wastewater treatment processes, such as conventional activated sludge (CAS), that utilize diffusers. This energy savings is one of the key reasons MABRs are gaining traction in the municipal wastewater industry.
Water membranes are widely used in the water treatment processes. They have become a fundamental player in separation technology because of the fact that they require no additional chemicals and their relatively low energy requirements.
Water membranes have been applied during the extraction of produced water, treatment of waste/sewage water and processing of surface water all with huge success levels. Conventional water treatment techniques are over time incorporating in their processes the use on water membranes. Commercialization of membranes was first done in the 1970s and 1980s.
Membrane technology is chiefly based on the presence of pores on the membranes that make them semi-permeable. The simple principle on which water membranes work is such that the semi-permeability of water membranes ensures that only water is allowed to pass through a specific membrane while trapping unwanted particles and substances.
In both microfiltration and ultra filtration, membranes provide an effective barrier for arresting suspended solids in water.
To aid substances to penetrate across a semi-permeable membrane the following steps are undertaken: Electric potential introduction, high pressure application and ensuring that the concentration gradient on both sides of the membrane is maintained. The surface area of the membrane also determines the efficiency of the membrane in use.
The only drawback on water membranes is that they cannot remove substances that are actually dissolved in the water such as phosphorus, nitrates and heavy metal ions. The following are categories of membranes: Microfiltration (MF), Ultra filtration (UF), Reverse osmosis (RO), and Nanofiltration (NF) membranes
Ultra filtration membranes employ polymer technology with chemically created microscopic pores that trap dissolved substances therefore eliminating the possible use of any coagulants.