DRINKING WATER

FILTRASORB 400 Provides PFAS Solution For Air Force Base In Interior Alaska
FILTRASORB 400 Provides PFAS Solution For Air Force Base In Interior Alaska

When Eielson Air Force Base, located in the interior of Alaska, found high levels of perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) in their drinking water, they needed a solution that was effective, cost-efficient, and operable in extreme temperatures. Calgon Carbon’s Model 10 adsorption system, filled with FILTRASORB 400 granular activated carbon (GAC), was determined to be the best option.

DRINKING WATER CASE STUDIES AND WHITE PAPERS

  • The Next Frontier: Automating By Water Quality Since the early 1970s, water and wastewater plants have been automating processes in order to achieve a more stable effluent and to decrease costs. By Bob Dabkowski, Hach Company
  • BEACON® AMA Provides Real-Time Data, Improving Customer Service And Accuracy
    BEACON® AMA Provides Real-Time Data, Improving Customer Service And Accuracy

    With a 2,400 square mile service area and approximately 40,000 customers to serve in southeastern Illinois, EJ Water Cooperative was having difficulties scheduling the nearly 4,000-mile monthly drive to complete a meter reading cycle. The rising cost of their aging system and the need to reduce operating costs prompted the search for a new meter reading system.

  • Arsenic Removed From Drinking Water With Iron Oxide Adsorption Treatment
    Arsenic Removed From Drinking Water With Iron Oxide Adsorption Treatment

    When high levels of arsenic were found in the drinking water in the community of Alto Lampa outside of Santiago de Chile, municipal water provider Aguas Adinas faced a predicament. AdEdge Water Technologies was contacted to design a treatment approach. This case study describes how iron oxide adsorption helped Alto Lampa reduce arsenic levels in treated water to non-detectable concentrations.

  • NE Alabama Water District Case Study Northeast Alabama Water District (NEAW) services 15,200 connections within 2,052 square miles, resulting in a very large distribution area.
  • Gore Hill Water Treatment Plant’s Backwash Recycle System Conserves More Than 1.5 Million Gallons Of Water Annually

    The emphasis on sustainability in recent years has placed an increased demand on environmentally friendly solutions that adhere to strict regulatory standards. The H2ZeroTM backwash/recycle system from AdEdge Water Technologies conserves water by storing and treating contaminated backwash water from filtration and treatment systems.

  • Achieving Effective Microbiological Management In Distribution Systems

    Most distribution system water-quality problems can relate back to microorganisms growing as biofilms in the pipes. These biofilms can prompt chlorine residual degradation, corrosion, nitrification, THM formation, red or black water, and taste and odor problems as well as other issues. An effective microbiological control strategy combines the appropriate testing technologies and their use at optimal intervals.

  • Avoiding The Low-Pressure Trap Of Air Release Valves
    Avoiding The Low-Pressure Trap Of Air Release Valves

    Air release valves play a critical role in maintaining pipeline integrity, but most don’t seal properly at lower pressures without changing to a softer seat, when the system is most at risk. The key to avoiding problems, while achieving optimal performance, is selecting air release valves that work in low- and high-pressure applications. The good news is that there are some advanced valve products on the market that seal over a much wider range.

  • WaterGEMS® Prioritizes Manila Water Facilities For Disaster Resiliency And Contingency Plan
    WaterGEMS® Prioritizes Manila Water Facilities For Disaster Resiliency And Contingency Plan

    Located on the Pacific Ring of Fire, the Philippines experience frequent earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, and typhoons that cause catastrophic losses. Manila Water Company, Inc., prepared a Natural Calamity Risk Resiliency and Mitigation Masterplan to ensure that there is a reliable water supply in the event of a natural disaster for the service area covering the East Zone of Metro Manila (the National Capital Region) and Rizal Province. 

  • Accurate Gas Flow Measurement Improves Water Disinfection Process Efficiency
    Accurate Gas Flow Measurement Improves Water Disinfection Process Efficiency

    Many of today’s large urban water treatment plants rely upon sophisticated chlorination processes in order to provide clean, sanitary water to millions of consumers in the US and around the globe. The efficiency and cost-effective operation of chlorination processes in water treatment facilities can be significantly improved with the installation of flow meters that accurately measure the flow of chlorine gas in the treatment process

  • Turbidity 101: What It Is, And Why It Is So Important

    Turbidity, a measure of the cloudiness or haziness of a fluid, was originally intended as a qualitative measure of the aesthetics of drinking water. It is not a measure of actual particles in the water; it measures how much those particles affect light being transmitted through the water, or how that light reflects off particles in the water. Today’s turbidity designs and methods have been regimented in an attempt to bring quantitative consistency to the measurement for both aesthetic and pathogenic qualities of drinking water.

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DRINKING WATER APPLICATION NOTES

  • TOC Analysis: The Best Tool In A Drinking Water Facility’s Toolbox

    SUEZ Water Technologies & Solutions designs and manufactures Sievers Total Organic Carbon (TOC) Analyzers that enable near real-time reporting of organic carbon levels for treatment optimization, quality control & regulatory compliance. TOC has a wide range of applicability at a drinking water plant, and therefore any drinking water utility — large or small — can measure TOC in their laboratory or online in their treatment process.

  • The Basics: Testing RO Quality

    Osmosis is the phenomenon of lower dissolved solids in water passing through a semi-permeable membrane into higher dissolved solids water until a near equilibrium is reached.

  • The Basics: Keeping Our Water Clean Requires Monitoring

    Keeping the water in our lakes, rivers, and streams clean requires monitoring of water quality at many points as it gradually makes its way from its source to our oceans. Over the years ever increasing environmental concerns and regulations have heightened the need for increased diligence and tighter restrictions on wastewater quality.

  • Dissolved Oxygen Measurement

    One of the most important measurements in the determination of the health of a body of water is its dissolved oxygen content. The quantity of dissolved oxygen in water is normally expressed in parts per million (ppm) by weight and is due to the solubility of oxygen from the atmosphere around us.

  • Analyzing Total Organic Carbon In Sea Water

    The analysis of Total Organic Carbon (TOC) in seawater can be both challenging and expensive. The concentration of organic carbon in seawater is of considerable interest. The effect this matrix can have on TOC analyzers can lead to rapid consumable turnover, costly maintenance and repairs.

  • Network Monitors Water Quality In Shale Gas Drilling Region High-pressure injection of water, sand, and chemicals that fracture shale deposits deep underground to free trapped natural gas is employed by drillers tapping the Marcellus shale beds, a geologic deposit that stretches from central New York to Virginia and contains gas believed to be worth hundreds of billions of dollars. By YSI
  • Application Note: Simultaneous Determination Of Total Bound Nitrogen (TNb) And Total Organic Carbon (TOC) In Aqueous Samples Total bound nitrogen (TNb) consists of dissolved ammonia, nitrates, nitrites, amines, and other organic nitrogen-containing compounds. TNb measurements represent an alternative to Total Kjeldahl Nitrogen (TKN) analysis for rapid screening of industrial wastewater, drinking water,agricultural run-off, and surface waters. By OI Analytical
  • Free Chlorine Measurement In Drinking Water Treatment

    Before water can be used as a safe and reliable source for drinking water, it must be properly treated. Since water is a universal solvent, it comes in contact with several different pathogens, some of which are potentially lethal, and inactivation is accomplished through chemical disinfection and mechanical filtration treatment. This treatment consists of coarse filtration to remove large objects and pre-treatment which includes disinfection using chlorine or ozone

  • Removal Of Chloramines With Activated Carbon

    In order to reduce the formation of harmful disinfection byproducts in drinking water, alternative disinfectant use has become increasingly widespread. Monochloramine is a leading alternative disinfectant that offers advantages for municipal water. This tech brief details the removal of monochloramine using activated carbon.

  • A New Way Of Designing With Reverse Osmosis Membranes

    Process design in water treatment is historically confined to proprietary or user-defined spreadsheets on a unit operation basis, with users manually adding results from each unit process upstream into the next operation.

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DRINKING WATER PRODUCTS

OPTIFLUX 5300 Electromagnetic Flowmeter OPTIFLUX 5300 Electromagnetic Flowmeter

The OPTIFLUX 5300 is an electromagnetic flowmeter (EMF) with a high-tech ceramic measuring tube for very aggressive and abrasive fluids, even with high solid content (up to 70%). The high-end EMF is particularly suited for process applications in the chemical processing industry and the minerals and mining sector. Due to its FDA and EC1935/2004 compliant sensor material, the OPTIFLUX 5300 can also be used for hygienic applications. With a measuring uncertainty of just ±0.15% of measured value (±1 mm/s) it is one of the most accurate electromagnetic flowmeters available in the market. That is why leading metrological institutes use the OPTIFLUX 5300 as their master meter.

Aztec 600 Low Range Manganese Analyzer Aztec 600 Low Range Manganese Analyzer

The Aztec 600 Low Range Manganese Analyzer AW634 offers reliable and accurate on-line analysis of manganese up to 0.10 ppm Mn.

Capital Controls® Model T70G4000 Chlorine Dioxide Generator Capital Controls® Model T70G4000 Chlorine Dioxide Generator

The Model T70G4000 chlorine dioxide generator is designed to produce and consistently maintain a product yield greater than 90%, which makes it ideal for drinking water treatment. It is a two chemical system, utilizing commercially available concentrations of hydrochloric acid and sodium chlorite in the production of chlorine dioxide. No chlorine gas is required. A proven design, durable construction and the use of the best available corrosion-resistant materials assure efficient gas production, precise solution feeding, low maintenance and dependable operation for the life of the equipment.

Milli-Q® IQ 7003/05/10/15 Ultrapure & Pure Water System Milli-Q® IQ 7003/05/10/15 Ultrapure & Pure Water System

The Ultimate Lab Water Solution for Water Analyses

Leopold® Clari-DAF® BWT System Leopold® Clari-DAF® BWT System

The Leopold® Clari-DAF® BWT (Backwash Water Treatment) system is a proven and highly effective method of treating spent filter backwash water for achieving the safe reuse recovery of as much as 99.7% of filter backwash water volume or returning it to the environment while lowering your total cost of operation.

Leopold® Ultrascreen® Disk Filter Leopold® Ultrascreen® Disk Filter

The Ultrascreen disk filter is compact and modular, with “plug n play” ease, reducing construction footprint and providing quick and easy startup.  Its high hydraulic loading capacity and in-service backwash feature (no need to provide additional units to handle flow during backwash) means the Ultrascreen disk filter requires fewer units to treat design flows, lowering construction costs.  The compact design and fewer required units also make it ideal for adding to existing plants facing more stringent discharge requirements.

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LATEST INSIGHTS ON DRINKING WATER

  • Nutrient Sensor Action Challenge Winners: Data And Decisions To Manage Excess Nutrients
    Nutrient Sensor Action Challenge Winners: Data And Decisions To Manage Excess Nutrients

    Nutrients in the environment from excess nitrogen and phosphorous can result in negative impacts on water quality. EPA is improving nutrient management by incentivizing the development of low-cost technology solutions, such as nutrient sensors, in collaboration with USGS, USDA, NIST, NOAA, and the U.S. Integrated Ocean Observing System (IOOS).

  • Pros And Cons Of Tertiary RO Wastewater Recycling For Municipal And Industrial Organizations
    Pros And Cons Of Tertiary RO Wastewater Recycling For Municipal And Industrial Organizations

    Tertiary reverse osmosis (RO) wastewater recycling has become a suitable solution to augment water supplies to combat water scarcity across the world. RO desalination in tertiary wastewater processes has proven to provide a cost efficient way to reuse water for both municipalities and industrial organizations.

  • AWWA Offers Comprehensive Approach To Water Main Assessments
    AWWA Offers Comprehensive Approach To Water Main Assessments

    Municipalities have a new resource in the battle to stretch their water utility capital and maintenance dollars as far as possible. AWWA recently released its first edition of the M77 Condition Assessment of Water Mains. The publication is designed to help water management professionals make better investment decisions by significantly improving their ability to estimate the lifespan of mains.

  • Seawater Reverse Osmosis Plant Design: Important Criteria To Consider
    Seawater Reverse Osmosis Plant Design: Important Criteria To Consider

    When designing anything, whether it be a machine, a program, or a process, there are always a few key factors to consider that can determine the validity of the design. Over the past decade, water and wastewater treatment methods have been focused on developing solutions for the water scarcity epidemic with additional emphasis on sustainability. Seawater reverse osmosis (SWRO) plant design requires careful analysis with several criteria to consider in the design of these systems.

  • WRF Hosts Capitol Hill, State-Of-The-Science Briefing On Harmful Algal Blooms
    WRF Hosts Capitol Hill, State-Of-The-Science Briefing On Harmful Algal Blooms

    To make informed decisions about how to limit exposure to cyanotoxins, utilities need information to select and implement a comprehensive and technically sound management approach. The Water Research Foundation (WRF) has been actively involved in developing effective innovative solutions to help utilities address this challenge and protect public health.

  • How Giving Legal Rights To Nature Could Help Reduce Toxic Algae Blooms In Lake Erie
    How Giving Legal Rights To Nature Could Help Reduce Toxic Algae Blooms In Lake Erie

    August and September are peak months for harmful blooms of algae in western Lake Erie. This year’s outbreak covered more than 620 square miles by mid-August. These blooms, which can kill fish and pets and threaten public health, are driven mainly by agricultural pollution and increasingly warm waters due to climate change.

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DRINKING WATER VIDEOS

EPA Scientist Nicholas Dugan Works To Safeguard Our Drinking Water

Nick Dugan is an environmental engineer working in EPA's Cincinnati laboratory. He is currently focused on bench-scale trials evaluating the impact of common drinking water treatment oxidants on intact, toxin-producing cyanobacterial cells over a range of water quality conditions.

How One Glass Of Water Changed My Life

How much water does it take to make a hamburger? How about to manufacture a car? Having experienced growing up with limited resources living in a refugee camp in India, Anil Ahuja is leading a movement to design sustainable cities and systems that protect the earth and the people who live on it.

Resource Revolution: The Energy/Water Nexus In Unconventional Oil & Gas - Highlights

GE partnered with the Wharton School's Initiative for Global Environmental Leadership (IGEL) for an industry leaders' discussion about the energy/water nexus in unconventional oil & gas production.

$600 Million Plan To Help Flint Proposed By Senate Democrats

A group of Congressional Democratic lawmakers from Michigan has proposed legislation to provide $600 million in financial assistance to help Flint deal with its current water crisis.

Kate Orff: Reviving New York's Rivers -- With Oysters!

Architect Kate Orff sees the oyster as an agent of urban change. Bundled into beds and sunk into city rivers, oysters slurp up pollution and make legendarily dirty waters clean — thus driving even more innovation in "oyster-tecture." Orff shares her vision for an urban landscape that links nature and humanity for mutual benefit.

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ABOUT DRINKING WATER

In most developed countries, drinking water is regulated to ensure that it meets drinking water quality standards. In the U.S., the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) administers these standards under the Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA)

Drinking water considerations can be divided into three core areas of concern:

  1. Source water for a community’s drinking water supply
  2. Drinking water treatment of source water
  3. Distribution of treated drinking water to consumers

Drinking Water Sources

Source water access is imperative to human survival. Sources may include groundwater from aquifers, surface water from rivers and streams and seawater through a desalination process. Direct or indirect water reuse is also growing in popularity in communities with limited access to sources of traditional surface or groundwater. 

Source water scarcity is a growing concern as populations grow and move to warmer, less aqueous climates; climatic changes take place and industrial and agricultural processes compete with the public’s need for water. The scarcity of water supply and water conservation are major focuses of the American Water Works Association.

Drinking Water Treatment

Drinking Water Treatment involves the removal of pathogens and other contaminants from source water in order to make it safe for humans to consume. Treatment of public drinking water is mandated by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) in the U.S. Common examples of contaminants that need to be treated and removed from water before it is considered potable are microorganisms, disinfectants, disinfection byproducts, inorganic chemicals, organic chemicals and radionuclides.

There are a variety of technologies and processes that can be used for contaminant removal and the removal of pathogens to decontaminate or treat water in a drinking water treatment plant before the clean water is pumped into the water distribution system for consumption.

The first stage in treating drinking water is often called pretreatment and involves screens to remove large debris and objects from the water supply. Aeration can also be used in the pretreatment phase. By mixing air and water, unwanted gases and minerals are removed and the water improves in color, taste and odor.

The second stage in the drinking water treatment process involves coagulation and flocculation. A coagulating agent is added to the water which causes suspended particles to stick together into clumps of material called floc. In sedimentation basins, the heavier floc separates from the water supply and sinks to form sludge, allowing the less turbid water to continue through the process.

During the filtration stage, smaller particles not removed by flocculation are removed from the treated water by running the water through a series of filters. Filter media can include sand, granulated carbon or manufactured membranes. Filtration using reverse osmosis membranes is a critical component of removing salt particles where desalination is being used to treat brackish water or seawater into drinking water.

Following filtration, the water is disinfected to kill or disable any microbes or viruses that could make the consumer sick. The most traditional disinfection method for treating drinking water uses chlorine or chloramines. However, new drinking water disinfection methods are constantly coming to market. Two disinfection methods that have been gaining traction use ozone and ultra-violet (UV) light to disinfect the water supply.

Drinking Water Distribution

Drinking water distribution involves the management of flow of the treated water to the consumer. By some estimates, up to 30% of treated water fails to reach the consumer. This water, often called non-revenue water, escapes from the distribution system through leaks in pipelines and joints, and in extreme cases through water main breaks.

A public water authority manages drinking water distribution through a network of pipes, pumps and valves and monitors that flow using flow, level and pressure measurement sensors and equipment.

Water meters and metering systems such as automatic meter reading (AMR) and advanced metering infrastructure (AMI) allows a water utility to assess a consumer’s water use and charge them for the correct amount of water they have consumed.