The long holiday weekend was filled with news about seismic activity in California and Nevada. An original jolt on Thursday was followed by thousands of aftershocks and an even stronger 7.1 quake on Friday, and tremblers are expected to continue for days.
Filtration OEMs can use built-in device diagnostics to monitor and maintain automation component performance.
Contact ultrasonic level switch technology was first applied to process control in the 1960s – and continues to provide accurate and reliable liquid level measurement in virtually every process industry today.
Ozone has been a proven effective method of water treatment and disinfection for well over a century.
Most treatment systems for removing iron and manganese from groundwater sources use chlorine, oxygen or various other chemicals to oxidize the clear state of iron and manganese to an oxidized or solid form so the particles can then be filtered out. If complete oxidation occurs and if the oxidized floc is of suitable condition, a filtration system consisting of filter sand and anthracite is used.
Small batches and multiple products in the same plant — these are the market demands to which more and more manufacturers need to adjust. The answer is based on the "Lego principle."
“You can’t manage what you don’t monitor”, an adage first attributed to Lord Kelvin applies to practically everything including water distribution systems.
When California capped chromium-6 in drinking water at 10 ppb in 2014, it became the only state to set a chromium MCL and, in so doing, created a challenge for water providers across the state. WRT (Water Remediation Technology LLC) has met that challenge with the SMR™ (Selective Metals Reduction) Process.
MidCoast Water delivers water and sewerage services to 40,000 households in the Manning, Great Lakes, and Gloucester communities of New South Wales in Australia. It also supplies 8 billion liters of water a year to Karuah in the south, Crowdy Head in the north, and Gloucester in the west.
Water and wastewater leaders are unsung heroes. Clean, safe water is essential to human life and to the well-being of the environment, yet it is grossly underfunded. Limited resources lead to deferred maintenance and difficult decisions.
There are various treatment processes that are used to remove iron and manganese from ground water for potable water supplies. Iron and manganese are typically found in groundwater in a dissolved state and the water may appear clear. While there are various less common treatment methods used (such as ion exchange), most treatment systems for iron and manganese oxidize the ferrous state (clear iron) to a ferric state so the solid particles can then be filtered out.
One of the most important measurements in the determination of the health of a body of water is its dissolved oxygen content. The quantity of dissolved oxygen in water is normally expressed in parts per million (ppm) by weight and is due to the solubility of oxygen from the atmosphere around us.
Phosphorus is an essential element for organisms and plants. In natural, uncontaminated waters, it occurs as organically bound phosphate, condensed phosphates or as orthophosphate — often referred to by its chemical formula PO4-P. The small quantity of phosphorus present in natural waters does not promote the growth of plants. However, a rise in the concentration of phosphorus results in the proliferation of algae, which leads to the eutrophication of the water body.
Being able to accurately measure both the quantity and rate of water passing through a water distribution system is crucial to gaining an informed understanding of overall efficiency. As such, achieving a measurement that is exact as possible can have a significant impact on key areas including supply planning, maintenance and resource deployment, leakage detection and rectification and the overall environment, in terms of controlling abstraction and reducing unnecessary draw on natural resources.
The task of managing the quantity and quality of potable water is unimaginable without online instrumentation to help water utilities to measure, treat and deliver drinking water to consumers. ABB’s Aztec 600 colorimetric and ion-selective electrode (ISE) analyzers have been designed to measure the key parameters that affect water quality – aluminium, iron, manganese, phosphate, color, ammonia and fluoride.
Hexanal is one of many well-documented aromatic components that contribute to flavor and aroma in common consumer food products containing omega-6 fatty acids. Hexanal content is also used to measure the oxidative status of foods rich in omega-6 fatty acids.
SUEZ Water Technologies & Solutions designs and manufactures Sievers Total Organic Carbon (TOC) Analyzers that enable near real-time reporting of organic carbon levels for treatment optimization, quality control & regulatory compliance. TOC has a wide range of applicability at a drinking water plant, and therefore any drinking water utility — large or small — can measure TOC in their laboratory or online in their treatment process.
In the fields of water and waste water technology, submersible pumps represent a viable economic and technical alternative to conventional, dry-installed pumps. In particular, they offer a number of handling advantages during maintenance and installation work, a factor of increasing importance in times of general staff cutbacks by operating companies.
Ammonia removal is a key metric for assessing wastewater treatment facility performance. This is because ammonia contributes to aquatic life toxicity. Furthermore, nitrogen, along with phosphorus, is a driver of receiving water eutrophication. Eutrophication, which simply is an over-enrichment of nutrients, can be detrimental to environmental and public health. It can result in harmful algae blooms, dissolved oxygen depletion, fish kills, and other damaging impacts.
Determining whether a region has sufficient water to satisfy the needs of people who live there is a complicated and imperfect process. Our research team has developed a new approach to measure water scarcity by using satellites hundreds of miles in space.
When a municipality or business wants to reuse their wastewater, some applications require more treatment than others due to the quality of the wastewater. Many standard wastewater treatment systems consist of pretreatment, primary treatment, and secondary treatment stages. By the end of the secondary stage, a majority of the pollutants, solids, organics, inorganics, and metals have been removed or reduced. This is where reverse osmosis wastewater treatment can be utilized in a third stage process.
Wildfire is a natural part of many ecosystems, but recently these fires have become more severe, burning more acres and causing destruction in the western parts of the United States. Recently, U.S. EPA researchers have begun to look at the impact of these fires on our water supply, the natural resource we depend on for drinking, irrigation, fishing, and recreation.
A seawater treatment plant was designed as one of the solutions to the recent water scarcity problems. Fresh and drinkable water isn’t easy to find in some places. As the world’s population grows and industrial production increases, even the largest of the world’s freshwater sources can eventually become strained. Therefore, desalination is meant to expand our sources of water across the world.
With memories of the wettest U.S. spring on record still fresh, it seems strange to hear that in many parts of the nation, groundwater supplies — the water stored underneath our feet, in rocks, and sediments — are lower than normal. This includes places with wet climates, such as southern Georgia, coastal Maryland, and Cleveland.
In most developed countries, drinking water is regulated to ensure that it meets drinking water quality standards. In the U.S., the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) administers these standards under the Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA).
Drinking water considerations can be divided into three core areas of concern:
Drinking Water Sources
Source water access is imperative to human survival. Sources may include groundwater from aquifers, surface water from rivers and streams and seawater through a desalination process. Direct or indirect water reuse is also growing in popularity in communities with limited access to sources of traditional surface or groundwater.
Source water scarcity is a growing concern as populations grow and move to warmer, less aqueous climates; climatic changes take place and industrial and agricultural processes compete with the public’s need for water. The scarcity of water supply and water conservation are major focuses of the American Water Works Association.
Drinking Water Treatment
Drinking Water Treatment involves the removal of pathogens and other contaminants from source water in order to make it safe for humans to consume. Treatment of public drinking water is mandated by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) in the U.S. Common examples of contaminants that need to be treated and removed from water before it is considered potable are microorganisms, disinfectants, disinfection byproducts, inorganic chemicals, organic chemicals and radionuclides.
There are a variety of technologies and processes that can be used for contaminant removal and the removal of pathogens to decontaminate or treat water in a drinking water treatment plant before the clean water is pumped into the water distribution system for consumption.
The first stage in treating drinking water is often called pretreatment and involves screens to remove large debris and objects from the water supply. Aeration can also be used in the pretreatment phase. By mixing air and water, unwanted gases and minerals are removed and the water improves in color, taste and odor.
The second stage in the drinking water treatment process involves coagulation and flocculation. A coagulating agent is added to the water which causes suspended particles to stick together into clumps of material called floc. In sedimentation basins, the heavier floc separates from the water supply and sinks to form sludge, allowing the less turbid water to continue through the process.
During the filtration stage, smaller particles not removed by flocculation are removed from the treated water by running the water through a series of filters. Filter media can include sand, granulated carbon or manufactured membranes. Filtration using reverse osmosis membranes is a critical component of removing salt particles where desalination is being used to treat brackish water or seawater into drinking water.
Following filtration, the water is disinfected to kill or disable any microbes or viruses that could make the consumer sick. The most traditional disinfection method for treating drinking water uses chlorine or chloramines. However, new drinking water disinfection methods are constantly coming to market. Two disinfection methods that have been gaining traction use ozone and ultra-violet (UV) light to disinfect the water supply.
Drinking Water Distribution
Drinking water distribution involves the management of flow of the treated water to the consumer. By some estimates, up to 30% of treated water fails to reach the consumer. This water, often called non-revenue water, escapes from the distribution system through leaks in pipelines and joints, and in extreme cases through water main breaks.
A public water authority manages drinking water distribution through a network of pipes, pumps and valves and monitors that flow using flow, level and pressure measurement sensors and equipment.
Water meters and metering systems such as automatic meter reading (AMR) and advanced metering infrastructure (AMI) allows a water utility to assess a consumer’s water use and charge them for the correct amount of water they have consumed.